Statewide Plan for Higher Education 2004-2012
B. Smooth Student Transition from PreK-12 to Higher Education
The Regents will strive to eliminate gaps in student performance (PreK-12) based on economic status, race, ethnicity or gender.
Most adults 18 to 25 believe that going to college is a way to earn respect in society and to achieve financial security, according to a 2005 survey by Public Agenda . However, some 40 percent of recent high school graduates are not prepared either for college or for employment, according to a 2004-05 survey by Achieve, Inc. A spring 2004 nationwide poll conducted for The Chronicle of Higher Education found that 94 percent of respondents believed that "every high school student who wants a four-year college degree should have the opportunity to earn one." On the other hand, a fall 2003 nationwide poll found that "most Americans believe high schools are failing to prepare students for college." For example, American College Testing (ACT)'s 2003 National Curriculum Survey found that college instructors ranked grammar and usage as the most important writing skills while high school teachers ranked them least important.
In 2002-03, 143,818 persons earned high school diplomas in New York State. The Department projects the number to peak at 184,931 in 2008-09 (a 28.6 percent growth over six years), then decline to 179,021 in 2011-12 (3.2 percent below the peak but 24.5 percent above 2002-03).
Of the 199,312 New York public school pupils entering the ninth grade in 2000-01, 67 percent earned high school diplomas by the end of the 2003-04 school year. A further 17 percent were still in school, leading the Department to project that 74 percent of the entering class will have earned diplomas by the end of 2004-05. Twelve percent of the entering ninth grade pupils dropped out of school. Those still enrolled were unprepared by middle schools for their high school courses, did not pass their courses, and may have been held back as a result. The majority of those who dropped out did not take Regents exams at all. The Department's new Statewide Student Data System made this information possible for the first time ever.
"Standards for What?" found a strong correlation between family income and college enrollment. It reported that "About 68 percent of students who are in the top quartile of test scores nationwide but come from the bottom socioeconomic quartile go to college. But 72 percent of students from the highest socioeconomic quartile with test scores in the nation's bottom quartile go to college."
New York has a long-standing commitment to make higher education accessible. More than 80 percent of New York high school seniors plan to go on to higher education. As discussed under Priority A.4, success in higher education is directly attributable to the academic preparation of pupils in elementary, middle, and secondary education. Building on the Learning Standards and more rigorous graduation requirements, the Regents are committed to ensuring that all pupils receive a quality PreK-12 education program to prepare them for higher education. In addition to raising standards for all pupils, the Regents have developed a comprehensive urban initiative strategy to ensure that all students can attain the higher learning standards and have the opportunity to pursue a postsecondary education.
New York colleges and universities have offered college courses to high school pupils at least since the middle of the last century. In 2002-03, they operated 1,150 extension sites in public and private schools for the benefit of K-12 students taking college courses.
The performance of New York State students in high school and on the SAT/ACT examinations clearly shows a strong relationship between preparation for college and college graduation rates. Chart 14 examines the relationship between a student's high school grade point average and college graduation rate for both baccalaureate and associate degree students. Chart 15 examines the relationship between a student's score on the SAT/ACT examinations and college graduation rates. These data demonstrate the value of the K-12 academic program in determining future academic success.
Baccalaureate graduation rates in all GPA categories rose from 1999-2003
Associate graduation rates in all GPA categories also increased or stayed the same from 1999-2003
Source: NYSED Office of Research and Information Systems Annual Survey
While the standards and the urban initiative strategy are critical elements of the Regents policy to prepare all students for college, there are important opportunity programs designed to help students in need of additional assistance to prepare for college.
Science and Technology Entry Program (STEP)
A State program funded through the Department, STEP operates at 57 public and independent colleges and universities, annually serving about 5,600 pupils from historically underrepresented groups. Over the past 18 years, it has helped to prepare 9,300 such pupils to enter college. As a result, in 2004, the National Science Foundation awarded the Department the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring. Chart 11 shows the racial/ethnic composition of the pupils STEP served in 2002-03.
STEP programs give pupils a myriad of activities to help them achieve in high school and give them tools to apply for college. They do not operate in a vacuum; instead they depend on collaborations among secondary schools, the higher education community, business, industry, parents, and other partners that support STEP's efforts. Services constituting the core of STEP projects include the following:
- Tutoring is provided to STEP pupils in primarily mathematics
and science courses. Peers, colleges, and professionals conduct
individual and group tutoring.
- Academic and career counseling informs pupils about the coursework
necessary to take in high school in order to pursue college and STEP-related
careers. The college/career component exposes pupils to various opportunities
in higher education and careers.
- Standardized test preparation assists pupils to prepare for standardized
examinations ranging from Regents exams to the PSAT/SAT. Instructors
use a variety of media to help pupils study for these examinations.
- Internship/research opportunities give pupils a platform to experience "real" work
environments and to test theories developed in the classroom.
- Enrichment courses are available to STEP pupils. In some programs they
can take credit-bearing college courses through the program during the
summer or school year.
- Professional development is available through training workshops and
conferences. Pupils also present their research at these meetings.
- A parental component provides a mechanism for parents to be involved
in the program by supporting the efforts of their children, providing
professional experience, having fundraisers, and so forth.
Through 57 collaborative endeavors among colleges, K-12 schools, and other stakeholders, the Liberty Partnerships program provides services to improve the ability of at-risk pupils in grades 5-12 to graduate from high school and enter postsecondary education and the workforce. Its key strategies are:
- To establish statewide and local public/private partnerships
to advance educational opportunities for at-risk pupils.
- To provide and broker resources that support:
- the education needs and plans of local schools and school districts
- local capacity-building and resource development
- ensuring that meaningful high quality programs and services are available to all Liberty Partnerships pupils
- improvement of the abilities of at-risk pupils to graduate from high
school and enter postsecondary education and the workforce.
- To inform stakeholders and the general public about the program.
- To provide statewide and national advocacy for youth.
Middle/Early Colleges are high schools integrated into the organizational structure of higher education institutions. In 1974, CUNY and the New York City Board of Education established the first such institution in the State, the Middle College High School at LaGuardia Community College. Today, there are 22 early or middle college schools, nationwide, according to the Middle College High School National Consortium, Inc., including one operated in New York City by Bard College and the New York City Department of Education. With support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, CUNY and the New York City Department of Education are establishing several additional early colleges, including The City College Academy of the Arts, affiliated with City College, and the Queens School of Inquiry at Queens College.
Advanced Placement Courses
Over 900 public high schools in New York State are offering college courses identified as advanced placement courses. These courses provide students with an excellent preparation for postsecondary education. The Regents support the Advanced Placement Program as an important resource in assisting students to be academically prepared to do college-level work.
The following describes planning elements that the four sectors, the Board of Regents and the Department will undertake to support the priority of Preparation for College.
Sector Initiatives in Response to Regents Priority for Preparation for College
The City University of New York
- CUNY has made college-sponsored learning opportunities
for high school students an essential aspect of its efforts
to better prepare students for success in college. The centerpiece
of those efforts is College Now, which provides the opportunity
for qualified students to take, for free, college credit
courses while still in high school.
- For those students not yet ready to take college-credit courses, College Now provides opportunities to develop the essential academic skills necessary for high school graduation and college preparedness.
There is evidence that College Now is making a difference:
- More than 28 percent of public high school graduates entering
CUNY in the fall of 2002 had been in College Now, and more
than 32 percent in the fall of 2003.
- While CUNY's community colleges serve the majority of College Now students,
most of those students enter baccalaureate programs after they graduate.
This means that those students met the more stringent requirements for
admission to those programs.
- Preliminary research indicates that College Now alumni are more likely to persist in their pursuit of a degree than other New York City public school graduates, as measured by their rates of re-enrollment for a third semester.
- CUNY has been a co-developer and a home to public high
schools for a generation. These high schools provide
opportunities to many different kinds of students - English-language
learners, academic high achievers, and struggling students.
College faculty members frequently work with their high
school counterparts on matters of mutual professional
development and students are able to take advantage of
a wide variety of campus resources.
- Working with the Office of New Schools Development
at the Department of Education and with funding from
the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, CUNY has launched
an initiative to create ten innovative early-college
secondary schools across the City.
- CUNY also has embarked on a pilot effort, in cooperation
with the Department of Education and with funding from
the New York City Department of Youth and Community Development,
to reach out to those who have left school and bring
them back. CUNY Prep, in the Bronx, offers a full-time
program of college preparatory study for out-of-school
youth between the ages of 16 and 18. Students prepare
to re-enter high school or begin college with a high
school equivalency diploma.
- CUNY has expanded and strengthened its professional
development activities for public school teachers through
projects such as Looking Both Ways and the Discovery
Institute at the College of Staten Island.
Independent Colleges and Universities
- The independent sector believes that access is qualified
by success - "access to success" - and that
each admitted student regardless of economic status,
race, ethnicity, or gender, is entitled to have, or have
the opportunity to enhance, the academic skills necessary
to succeed in college. The scope of initiatives in college
preparation to achieve this outcome ranges from pre-collegiate
preparation programs to remedial classes and to various
other specialized programs, including accommodation of
students with disabilities, that can lead to success
- The scope of initiatives in college preparation in
the independent sector ranges from pre-collegiate preparation
programs to remedial classes in two-year colleges and
other specialized programs to ensure success.
- The independent sector will continue to maintain and
develop local outreach activities and early awareness
events at elementary, middle, and secondary schools to
reinforce New York's Learning Standards and to welcome
new and changing populations to college opportunities.
- The independent sector is watching demographic trends
and predictions for the next eight years and is preparing
for even greater numbers of minority and non-traditional
students. To meet the postsecondary needs of these populations,
more preparatory activity, college classes, and pre-collegiate
and collegiate activities are being offered in non-traditional
formats and at night and on weekends.
- The independent sector has a tradition of coordinated
outreach to middle and high schools, collectively and
individually. Its students serve as mentors in local
area schools and institutions have collaborated in ongoing
and special programs with school districts.
- The independent sector is also reaching out actively
to middle and high school students on their own turf
by supporting and participating in their current interests,
and will continue this activity.
- cIcu and its member institutions will continue to participate
in and advocate for expanded collaborations between secondary
schools and independent colleges, such as GEAR UP and
cIcu's Outreach Programs (Affording College, Your College
Search, cIcu periodic Financial Aid Bulletins, and other
programs and activities such as "Camp College," an
early awareness experiential activity hosted on various
campuses for traditionally underrepresented secondary
students), and other programs and publications designed
to acquaint secondary students with the preparation needed
for and the opportunities available in higher education.
Pre-enrollment activities include:
- literacy programs in local elementary schools;
- presentations at high schools about career fields;
- previews of the college experience in high school pupils' visits to campus;
- providing newspapers to local high schools for current events sessions;
- entering into articulation arrangements with high schools;
- helping high school staff with curriculum development;
- encouraging high schools to offer advanced placement tests;
- offering courses to high school pupils for college credit;
- arranging student-counselor pre-admission meetings; and
- offering summer "bridge programs" for students
with uneven college preparation, including instruction
in English and math, orientation to campus resources,
and workshops on study skills.
State University of New York
- SUNY will give particular attention to supporting early
intervention initiatives, in collaboration with middle
and secondary schools that seek to increase student preparedness.
- With minority student enrollment reaching 76,392 in
fall 2003, SUNY will continue to expand efforts to reach
and support populations underrepresented in higher education.
- Through SUNY's statewide network of Education Opportunity
Centers, supported by two Counseling and Outreach Centers,
SUNY will continue to provide underprepared students
academic programs leading to higher education.
Regents Initiatives in Response to Priority for Preparation for College
Teachers Prepared According to New Standards
In 1999, the Regents and the Department identified the knowledge and skills necessary for teachers to meet the learning needs of students with diverse backgrounds and characteristics. Over 3,500 teacher education programs at 114 campuses across the State re-registered and strengthened their programs to prepare teachers to help all students meet the Regents learning standards. The first graduates of the teacher education programs meeting the Regents standards adopted in 1999 began teaching in public schools in the fall of 2004. This number will increase throughout the period of this Plan.
By 2008, the Department plans to:
- increase by 1,200 the number of pupils served through the programs;
- reduce ratios of students to staff in the programs;
- strengthen professional development for the programs' staff and faculty; and
- expand use of technology to improve performance by pupils and programs.
Institutionalizing in the Public Schools Key Services
Used by STEP and Liberty Partnerships
The Regents urge school districts to consider institutionalizing for all pupils the key services and techniques used by the Science and Technology Entry Program and the Liberty Partnerships program.
Initiatives in Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Continuing Education
To guide large scale instructional improvement in urban school districts, the Department will:
- explain the purpose of educational reform efforts, including outreach to parents, students, business leaders, members of the Legislature, and the community;
- enlist new allies, especially from business and higher education, to advocate for a consistent message of higher standards for student success in postsecondary education and the workplace;
- set district and school performance targets and monitor results through the State assessment system;
- report performance publicly through school report cards and the §655 Report; and
- advocate for the distribution of State resources fairly through the Regents State Aid Proposal and engage in continuous legislative advocacy.
To generate and disseminate instructional knowledge, the Department will:
- identify effective instructional practices and tools consistent with scientifically based research (e.g., reading and mathematics centers);
- disseminate information and provide assistance on developing grade-by-grade curricula supported by sustained professional development;
- implement a student information/identification system and assist school administrators and teachers to use the data to change classroom practice;
- identify best and promising practices in district and school management of instruction and create electronic dissemination systems through the Department's Virtual Learning System, on-line data bases, public television, regional training and urban forums; and
- strengthen connections between higher education and school practitioners to ensure consistency in classroom practice for teachers in urban schools.
To create programs and strategies focused on pupils' needs, the Department will:
- advocate for resources to make Pre-Kindergarten universal;
- expand the scientifically based reading program to all pupils scoring at Levels 1 and 2 on the State assessment in English language arts;
- expand access of students with disabilities to the general education curriculum and environment using intensive research-based instructional methodologies, especially in reading and mathematics;
- improve the structure and content of bilingual and English as a second language programs and ensure pupils receive quality and intensive English instruction;
- develop middle-level models that give pupils time to catch up academically and still receive a strong academic program and positive youth development experiences;
- create an instructional and student support program for 9th graders who are falling behind and cannot do 9th grade work; and
- create partnerships with community colleges to develop alternative education programs with increased opportunities in a college setting for potential high school dropouts.
To enhance school improvement, accountability and fiscal integrity of school districts, the Department will seek a dedicated source of funding to implement school-by-school reform accountability to provide more intensive support and assistance to low-performing schools to close student achievement gaps.
Statewide Student Data System
The Department is building a statewide student data repository system to collect individual pupil data from local school districts, manage the data at a regional level, and provide for the collection of the appropriate individual pupil data at the State level for State reporting and analysis. The system will:
- inform policy development related to programs, curriculum and instruction, and resource allocation at the federal, State, and local levels;
- provide the data needed for analysis and State and federal accountability;
- increase the capacity of the Department and school districts to examine the relationships among resource, demographic, and student performance measures;
- track public school pupils longitudinally to better determine the percentage completing high school; and
- eliminate redundant data collection by the Department.
The Department plans the new system to be operational by the summer of 2008.
Other Steps to Improve Preparation for College
The Regents encourage the development and enhancement of support and academic services for middle school and high school pupils that will improve their readiness for college, including CUNY's College Now program and the establishment of early or middle college schools by colleges and school districts.
Indicators of Progress: Preparation for College
- Change over time in New York high school pupils' scores on standardized tests (e.g. ACT; SAT).
- Change over time in the number of pupils passing Regents exams with 65 or greater.
- Change over time in the percent of 19 year-old State residents in college in New York State; comparison to other key states and the nation as a whole.
- College participation for young adults (between whites and nonwhites and between low-income and high-income individuals) based on percents of 18 to 24 year olds enrolled in college (compared to other states and the U.S.).
- College participation rates for recent high school graduates measured as the ratio of State residents enrolled in college in the U.S. to recent high school graduates in the State (compared to other states and the U.S.).
- Change over time in the number, statewide, of recent New York high school graduates taking remedial college courses.
- Change over time in associate and baccalaureate degree graduation rates by high school grade point average and by SAT/ACT score.
- Illustrative examples of institutional efforts to improve public
school student achievement and evidence of the efforts' success.
- Tutoring is provided to STEP pupils in primarily mathematics and science courses. Peers, colleges, and professionals conduct individual and group tutoring.
Beginning with pupils in the middle school grades, the Regents encourage collaborative efforts among the Department, colleges and school districts to publicize the variety of services and information available to help K-12 pupils and their families access and prepare for success in future college study and to assure that information is clear and understandable by potential students and their families.
Collaboration between colleges and the schools to assist pupils to enter and succeed in higher education is one of the elements of a highly effective higher education system. In 2002-03, 81 percent of New York State high school seniors planned to go on to higher education; however, only about 66 percent planned to do so in New York.
Information About College
To prepare for admission to and success in college, K-12 pupils and their families need information about the academic demands of college and the courses they need to take in middle and high school to prepare for those demands. They also need accurate information about the cost of attendance and the ways to meet that cost, including federal, State, and institutional grant, work, and loan programs. It is not clear that New York's pupils and their families are receiving this information in clear and understandable ways.
School Level at which Members of the Public High School Class of 2001 First Received Information at School about Postsecondary Education School Level General
Elementary School 3% 2% Middle School 14% 11% Grades 9-10 39% 23% Grades 11-12 33% 42% Never 7% 12% Source: NYSED, Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities
Table 3 shows that only 14 percent of general education pupils in public high school graduating class of 2001 first received information at school about postsecondary education while in middle school; 39 percent first received it in grades 9 or 10 and 33 percent in grades 11 or 12; seven percent never received such information. Special education pupils fared even less well, receiving such information later than their peers, if at all. In general, 40 percent of the general education students received information about postsecondary education too late (i.e., in grades 11 or 12) and for students with disabilities, the percentage increased to 54 percent.
Student Financial Aid
A 2004 report by the American Council on Education found that, in 1999-2000, about 8 million undergraduates, nationwide, enrolled for credit at institutions participating in federal Title IV student aid programs, did not submit a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). This was 49.8 percent of all such undergraduates that year. Of the 8 million, 1.7 million were low- and moderate-income students. The study estimated that 850,000 would have been eligible for a Pell Grant.
Of the undergraduates who did not submit a FAFSA, nationwide, 13.7 percent were full-time students financially dependent on their families and with incomes of less than $20,000. The study did not provide state-by-state information, so the number of non-applicants from New York is not known; however, a FAFSA is the normal application for a TAP award as well as for federal student aid. If New York undergraduates reflect the national picture, a significant number of low-income, dependent, full-time undergraduates may be failing to apply for State and federal need-based grants to which they are entitled. It is essential that schools assist college-bound pupils to apply for student financial aid to which they may be entitled.
The Regents support the role that higher education institutions are playing to ensure that pupils have the knowledge and skills to make a smooth transition from PreK-12 to higher education through such programs as the State's Liberty Partnership and STEP programs. These and other comprehensive programs and strategies will improve the ability of all youth to graduate from high school and prepare for competitive entry into higher education and the workforce.
The following describes planning elements that the four sectors, the Board of Regents and the Department will undertake to support the priority of Information and Assistance in Preparing for College.
Sector Initiatives in Response to Priority for Information and Assistance in Preparing for College
The City University of New York
- In addition to including the provision of information and
assistance in preparing for college to students in all of its
pre-college programs, CUNY has used its involvement in GEAR
UP to refine and enhance its services in this area.
- Getting ready for college involves a lot, and the sooner students
can start, the better prepared they will be. GEAR UP is a federal initiative
to promote college readiness and awareness among students in grades
6-12 from communities with traditionally low levels of participation
in higher education. CUNY has responded to the initiative in a major
way by establishing a systemwide consortium coordinated by the University's
Office of Academic Affairs. The consortium and CUNY's overall efforts
have been funded by the New York State Higher Education Services Corporation.
- In addition, five colleges (Borough of Manhattan Community College,
Bronx Community College, LaGuardia Community College, Medgar Evers College,
and the College of Staten Island) have received direct grants from the
U.S. Department of Education. More than 2,300 high school students from
23 high schools participate.
- GEAR UP provides services in concert with teachers and families to
engage students more fully in their high school experiences with a focus
on future college success. In-class and after-school tutoring and mentoring;
college awareness programs for students and their families; college
visits and residential summer programs; project-based learning; and
opportunities to participate in college-credit courses through College
Now are among the GEAR UP offerings.
- In 2004, CUNY GEAR UP staff took the lead role in producing a Web-based
financial aid tutorial -- College
$ense: How to Pay for College --
for distribution to high school students and their parents.
Independent Colleges and Universities
- The independent sector has for more than 25 years engaged
in various projects and activities to build and strengthen
the bridge between secondary and higher education, producing
a number of informative, free publications for school guidance
counselors, students, and parents about college opportunities
See Priority B6.
- cIcu's outreach programs, which can be found at www.nycolleges.org ,
provides information on the independent sector and preparing
for and selecting a college or university in New York State.
- Through its close relationship with professional admissions and financial
aid organizations, as well as guidance counselors, the independent sector
has drawn on this expertise to organize college fairs, financial aid
nights, workshops, and other activities, including "Camp College."
Described under Priority B6.
Post-admission initiatives include:
- required "college success skills" courses
- regular meetings with advisors
- faculty "open door" policies
- placement examinations
- early remedial courses in college
- designation of a "student success coordinator"
State University of New York
- Through the statewide GEAR UP project, SUNY provides support
and exposure to higher education options in the public sector
for thousands of high school students across the State.
- SUNY has a comprehensive enrollment management program at the System
and campus level that includes outreach to all New York State high schools
and high school students.
Regents Initiatives in Response to Priority for Information and Assistance in Preparing for College
Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)
More than 80 percent of New York high school seniors plan to go to college. The FAFSA is the basic tool used to determine eligibility for both federal and State student aid. Every potentially eligible student should complete that application. Therefore, the Regents urge:
- Every school district to assist 12th grade pupils to complete
and submit a FAFSA.
- Every college that enrolls undergraduates to assist entering students
to complete and submit a FASFA if they have not done so already.
Parent Involvement in the Schools
By 2008, the Department intends to develop a parent involvement program that will enable it to:
- give technical assistance and support to school districts enabling them to implement effective parent involvement activities to support pupil achievement;
- ensure that parents receive timely information, in a language they understand, on pupil and school improvement;
- disseminate information on effective parent involvement strategies/programs; and
- give parents the information and skills they need to support and advocate
effectively on behalf of their children and build capacity in schools
to increase parental involvement in activities designed to improve pupil
Other Initiatives in Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Continuing Education
- To provide greater access to information about State assessments
and Regents examinations and the requirements for high school
graduation, the Department will implement a new Web page for
- To implement the Regents Policy Statement on Middle-Level Education,
a strategy will be developed to better prepare pupils academically and
personally for the transition to high school and for preparation for
future college study and entrance into the workforce.
See Regents Priority B6.
Opportunities in Nursing
See Regents Priority D10.
Transition Activities for pupils with disabilities
See Regents Priority A5.
Indicators of Progress: Information and Assistance in Preparing for College
- Change over time in the grade in which information about
higher education is first provided to elementary, middle, and
high school pupils and their families.
- Change over time in parent involvement in schools.
- In addition to including the provision of information and assistance in preparing for college to students in all of its pre-college programs, CUNY has used its involvement in GEAR UP to refine and enhance its services in this area.
C. Meeting New York's Needs through Graduate Programs and through Research
Regents Priority: Strong Graduate Programs to Meet the State's Needs
The Regents will advocate that our colleges and universities, and the State and Federal governments, strengthen graduate study and State and Federal support for graduate students. Institutions are asked to identify the emerging areas of scholarship for which they will need faculty, their needs for new faculty to replace those departing or retiring, and the extent of their need for faculty reflecting the diversity of New York's student body.
Table 4 shows that educational attainment is related positively to median earnings and related negatively to unemployment.
Educational Attainment, 2002 Median Earnings, and 2003 Unemployment Rate, Nationwide Educational
Less than High School $22,584 8.4% High School Graduate $29,800 5.5% Some College, No Degree $35,505 5.2% Associate Degree $36,784 4.0% Baccalaureate Degree $48,896 3.3% Master's Degree $56,494 2.9% Doctorate $77,216 2.1% Professional Degree $85,921 1.7% Source: Postsecondary Education Opportunity, Oskaloosa, Iowa
The Bureau of Labor Statistics lists the following eight occupations requiring education at the master's degree or doctoral level as being among both the fastest growing occupations and those with the largest number of job openings, 2002-2012:
- Postsecondary faculty
- Research scientists in computer
and information sciences
- Medical scientists, except epidemiologists
- Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists
- Biochemists and biophysicists
- Physical Therapists
- Mental health and substance abuse social workers
- Rehabilitation counselors
Graduate programs help prepare scholars to conduct research and educate other professionals. Of New York's 268 colleges and universities, 134 (50 percent) offer 8,171 programs leading to master's and doctoral degrees or advanced certificates. This year, they are preparing 189,452 full- and part-time graduate students (16.8 percent of all New York college and university students). This was a 2.1 percent increase over the 185,509 enrolled in the fall of 2002.
Of the $880 million in need-based and merit-based grants that the State provided to students through the Higher Education Services Corporation in 2003-04, $4.9 million (0.6 percent) was awarded to graduate students (the same as in 2002-03), according to the annual NASSGAP survey.
Future Needs for New York State Faculty
Full-time faculty at New York colleges and universities include:
- Nobel laureates
- Pulitzer Prize winners
- Academy Award (Emmy and Oscar) winners
- holders of the National Medal of Science
- winners of MacArthur awards
- members of the National Academies of Science and Engineering and the National Institute of Medicine.
In 1995-96, New York's colleges and universities had 91,557 faculty, 52.1 percent of whom (47,716) had been full-time and 47.9 percent (43,841), part-time. In the fall of 2003, they had 116,325 faculty members, of whom 51,410 (44.2 percent) were full-time and 64,915 (55.8 percent) were part-time. A majority of institutions reported having more part-time than full-time faculty.
Between the two dates, the total number of faculty in New York grew by 27.1 percent. The number of full-time faculty grew by only 7.7 percent (3,694) while the number of part-time faculty increased by 48.1 percent (21,074).
The U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics projects an average of nearly 95,980 openings for full- or part-time faculty at colleges, universities, and other postsecondary institutions (including non-degree institutions) nationwide each year from 2002 through 2012. In comparison, the number of new doctoral degrees awarded in the United States peaked in 1998 at 42,652 and has declined since then to 39,955 in 2001-02, the lowest level since 1993, according to the 2002 Summary Report, Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities (National Opinion Research Center).
Academe needs new scholars in all areas. Large numbers of faculty are expected to retire in the next decade, as nearly one-third of full-time faculty, nationwide, is 55 or older. The lack of scholars can seriously jeopardize New York's ability to conduct needed research; teach future leaders of business; prepare teachers in such critical areas as mathematics, the sciences, special education, and bilingual education; prepare professionals; and contribute to national security.
A gap exists between the representation of members of racial/ethnic groups among faculty and their representation among students. Nearly 25 percent of the student body in New York is Black, Hispanic, or Native American; however, only 8.2 percent of full-time faculty is from those racial/ethnic groups. A gap also exists by gender; while nearly 60 percent of all college students are women, nearly 60 percent of all full-time faculty are men.
Academe also needs academic librarians. In 2002, New York colleges and universities employed 2,315 academic librarians, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. The New York State Higher Education Initiative (NYSHEI) estimates that as many as 40 percent may retire by the end of this decade, and 67 percent by 2020.
Other Employment Requiring Graduate Study. Between 1995-96 and 2001-02, the number of doctorates conferred in New York declined by 8.4 percent (See Chart 17). Statewide, New York's colleges and universities offer 1,146 programs leading to doctoral degrees, of which 911 are research-oriented Ph.D. programs. In 2001-02, the institutions conferred 3,459 doctorates on their students, who participate in a national and international employment market. They were 8.7 percent of the doctoral degrees conferred nationwide that year.
More women than men earn master's degrees in NY. Almost as many women as men earn doctorates.
Source: NCES IPEDS Federal Survey C
In both 2000-01 and 2001-02, nearly 60 percent of the doctorates awarded in New York were in only five program areas:
- Biological Sciences/Life Sciences
- Social Sciences and History
In comparison, the fields in which more than 60 percent of doctoral degrees, nationwide, were conferred in 2001-02 were:
- Life Sciences
- Social Sciences
- Physical Sciences
The most notable difference is that in New York engineering is a more significant field for doctoral degrees than it is nationwide.
There is a gap between the rates at which students of different racial/ethnic groups earn undergraduate and graduate degrees. In 2000-01, Black, Hispanic, and Native American students earned 27.3 percent of all baccalaureates conferred in New York; however, they received only 10.2 percent of the doctorates.
Foreign Graduate Students
In 2003-04, the number of foreign students enrolling at American institutions of higher education, nationwide, declined for the first time since 1971-72, according to the Institute for International Education (IIE). The decline was 13,814 students (2.4 percent), from 586,323 in 2002-03 to 572,509 in 2003-04. It may be compared to the 27.3 percent growth in foreign enrollments at American colleges and universities since 1971-72.
Worldwide, each year about two million students attend higher education institutions outside their home countries. In 2002-03, the majority were enrolled in only three countries: 586,323 in the U.S., about 270,000 in Britain, and about 227,000 in Germany. Some project that the number of students leaving their home countries to study will quadruple by 2025.
On average, nationwide, foreign students make up 3.4 percent of all students at public institutions and 6.4 percent of all private institution students, according to the IIE. About 38 percent of foreign students in the U.S. are enrolled in graduate programs. The Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) surveyed member institutions regarding applications, acceptance, and enrollment of graduate students. The number of foreign applications to the major graduate institutions for fall 2004 admission to graduate programs declined by 28 percent from the fall 2003 admission. That decline affected more than 90 percent of the 126 responding institutions. The number of foreign applicants accepted declined by only 18 percent, however, and the number of foreign graduate students actually enrolling was only six percent lower than the preceding fall. The six percent decrease between fall 2003 and fall 2004 in actual enrollment was a shallower decline than the ten percent decrease reported between fall 2002 and fall 2003. The largest declines were reported to be among applicants from China, India, and South Korea, the three countries sending the largest number of foreign students in recent years. The Educational Testing Service reported that the number of students from India and China taking the Graduate Record Examination declined last year by 50 percent from previous levels.
Institutions, higher education associations, and the Government Accountability Office (GAO) tend to agree that a principal cause of the decline is the stricter "Visa Mantis" security review requirements imposed since 9/11, and especially the time it takes to have a mandatory interview by a U.S. consular official as part of the application process. ("Visa Mantis" is a review procedure to screen visa applicants who might pose a threat to national security by transferring sensitive technology.) GAO found that, in the spring of 2003, it took an average of 67 days to complete the security checks associated with visa applications. The wait for an interview generally was two to three weeks. In July 2004, the Secretary of State instructed U.S. consulates to handle student visa requests "in the most expeditious way," however. By November 2004 the time to complete reviews had been reduced from 67 days to about 15 days as a result of the addition of consular staff, improved communication between consulates and the State Department, and technological improvements.
Despite these improvements, applications for fall 2005 admission declined by a further five percent. Applications continued to decline from China and India; however, the number of applications from South Korea for fall 2005 admission remained unchanged from 2004. Applications from countries in the Middle East increased by six percent.
The growth and maturation of higher education in countries that have sent large numbers of their citizens for graduate study in the U.S. also is believed to have contributed to the decline, together with a perceived increase in recruitment by Australian, British, Canadian, Irish, and New Zealand universities, countries whose visa procedures are not so involved. Canada's spring 2005 modifications to its immigration policies may increase further Canadian universities' attractiveness to foreign students.
CGS reported that many of the respondents to its surveys have taken steps to reduce impediments to enrollment by foreign students. Principal among these has been requiring that applications be submitted at earlier dates, enabling earlier admission decisions that leave successful applicants more time to receive visas. Nearly half of CGS respondents reported that they provide guidance and advice on the application and visa process to foreign applicants for graduate study. Some reported making greater use of technology to speed applications and notification of acceptance.
Some believe that the decline is temporary and that the numbers will increase again as a result of the directive to treat student visa applicants more expeditiously and the steps institutions have taken to assist foreign applicants. Others believe that this is the beginning of a long-term downturn because "the word is out on the street" in many countries that visas to enter the U.S. are not available, because of concerns about safety in the U.S., and because of the increased competition from other countries. At this time, there still appears to be little information to indicate whether either view is correct.
The picture in New York is mixed. The most recent year for which the Department has data on enrollment of non-resident aliens as graduate students is 2002-03. Between fall 2000 and fall 2002, the number of non-resident aliens enrolled as full-time graduate students grew by 16.2 percent, statewide, from 19,855 to 23,079. The Department has no information at this time about non-resident alien enrollment in graduate study for 2003 or 2004. According to IIE, however, three New York institutions are among the 25 institutions with the largest number of foreign students (undergraduate, graduate, and first-professional degree), nationwide: Columbia University, New York University, and the State University of New York at Buffalo. Columbia reported a 4.2 percent increase in foreign students between 2003 and 2004 and Buffalo reported a 1.0 percent increase; NYU reported a 7.0 percent decline.
The following describes planning elements that the four sectors, the Board of Regents and the Department will undertake to support the priority of Strong Graduate Programs to Meet the State's Needs.
Sector Initiatives in Response to Priority for Strong Graduate Programs to Meet the State's Needs
The City University of New York
- Recruit qualified, diversified, and sufficient faculty
to ensure the quality of education.
- Cluster hiring initiative to meet the goal of ensuring
that 70 percent of course sections are taught by full-time
faculty. The disciplines targeted include several in or
related to the liberal arts and sciences: foreign languages,
the biosciences, and physical, behavioral, and social sciences
related to the urban environment.
- Recruit diverse students into Ph.D. programs to ensure a diverse
professoriate in years to come.
- Enhance curriculum by promoting integration of instructional technology.
- Implement or continue special or exemplary programs to foster academic
- Governors Island Simulation Center (GISC) will train future science
and math teachers in using computer simulation technology to enhance
teaching and learning in the classroom.
- The Honors College continues to strive to provide the best aspects
of a small liberal arts college.
- Maintain the level of scholarship and pedagogy in U.S. History.
- Cluster hiring initiative to meet the goal of ensuring that 70 percent of course sections are taught by full-time faculty. The disciplines targeted include several in or related to the liberal arts and sciences: foreign languages, the biosciences, and physical, behavioral, and social sciences related to the urban environment.
- CUNY has committed to devote $2 million per year toward providing tuition
remission to doctoral students. Additionally, the University has implemented
a system that will allow doctoral students at an appropriate level to
be assured of teaching at its various colleges.
- Under the University's Community College Investment Program, 250 new
faculty have been hired to teach at the six community colleges.
- As part of the University-wide Performance Management Program, colleges
are required to demonstrate the steps taken to recruit and hire a diverse
Independent Colleges and Universities.
- Full-time faculty members in the independent sector include
Nobel Prize winners in medicine, physics, chemistry, and
economics; Pulitzer Prize winners; recipients of the National
Medal of Science; MacArthur awards; and Academy Awards, as
well as members of the National Academy of Science, National
Academy of Engineering, and National Institute of Medicine.
- The independent sector will continue to adopt institutional strategies
for graduate programs unique to each institution's position, circumstances
that will achieve maximum impact and enhance the institution's reputation
in academe, industry, government, and the public perception.
- The independent sector will also continue to ensure graduate programs'
success through state-of-the-art capital infrastructure. In 2004, the
Governor introduced a new, first-of-its-kind $350 million capital program
to invest in economic development, high technology, critical academic
facilities, and urban renewal/historic preservation projects. For every
$1 in State support an eligible independent college must raise $3. The
Legislature offered a similar plan and cIcu hopes that, when differences
are ironed out, New York State will stimulate over $2 billion in capital
projects to help communities around the State.
- The independent sector will continue to enhance graduate and postdoctoral
programs in scope and quality. In reviewing the plans submitted by cIcu's
member institutions, eight graduate-level programs were given priority
because of their relevance and opportunities for research:
- Cancer and genetics;
- Developments in biotechnology, particularly at the interface of medicine and nanoscience;
- Environmental quality systems;
- Ecology and environment;
- Interdisciplinary programs in information technology and innovation;
- Digital literacy;
- Social and medical problems associated with aging; and
- Learning behavior of children.
- The independent sector will continue to encourage and support
expressions of diversity across the college communities,
especially those that are characterized by faculty, students,
and staff working together to create an inclusive learning
environment in both curriculum and co-curricular activities.
- The diversity of the independent sector's faculty has grown. Over the
last 15 years, the proportion of faculty identifying themselves as Asian,
Black, or Hispanic increased from nine percent to 15 percent. The increased
faculty diversity has enhanced the educational experience of independent
sector students. In the coming years, the sector will continue to encourage
such diversity on its campuses.
- The independent sector will also continue to support professional development
for faculty and professional staff related to the achievement of individual
institutions' strategic goals.
Because only three institutions in the sector offer post-baccalaureate programs, the sector plan did not address this priority.
State University of New York.
- SUNY will continue to attract, engage, and support a diverse faculty of leading teachers and scholars, while advancing the frontiers of knowledge and practice appropriate to each SUNY campus type. Its campuses will remain places where leading faculty can create outstanding programs of instruction and research and serve effectively.
- Academic programs are being launched and/or strengthened in conjunction with cutting-edge research conducted on SUNY's campuses, including its three Centers of Excellence and numerous other research centers and incubator programs. Such facilities are essential to attracting leading faculty researchers and top-notch graduate students.
- Mission Review II will see greater emphasis on faculty development, including recruitment and retention plans (consistent with academic program development plans), strengthening promotion and tenure processes, and ensuring that the work of the faculty is supported and recognized appropriately. Campus goals for faculty teaching, research, and scholarship productivity will be set in the context of national peer performance. Plans to support those goals with adequate infrastructure, resources, and facilities will also be discussed. Implications for SUNY policy will emerge during the dialogue with campuses and there will be broader participation from System Administration during Mission Review II to explore such implications.
- SUNY will give particular attention to increasing access to and support
for graduate study and to developing greater levels of diversity among
faculty, staff, and students, particularly in positions affecting governance
Regents Initiatives in Response to Priority for Strong Graduate Programs to Meet the State's Needs
Closing the Gender Gap.
A recent survey was made of the perceptions of work and family demands by male and female full-time tenure-track faculty members who had at least one child below the age of 16 (O'Laughlin and Bischoff, 2005). It found that women "reported greater academic and family stress and perceptions of less institutional support for the balance of work and family" than did men. To help close the gap between the proportion of students and the proportion of faculty who are women, the Regents will continue to urge colleges and universities to consider implementing the good practices in the July 2004 GAO report, "Gender Issues." These include stopping the tenure clock and reducing teaching loads for faculty members who give birth and making on-site child care available to faculty.
Eighty-five New York colleges and universities offer programs to prepare Registered Nurses. In 2002, ten percent of New York's programs to educate nurses turned qualified applicants away because they lacked nursing faculty. In 2003-04, the nation's 88 doctoral nursing programs conferred only 419 degrees. This was ten percent fewer than the year before. To address this problem, the Department will seek to expand the nurse faculty scholarship program to $3 million per year to provide for 200 fellowships of study in a master's degree program in nursing or in a doctoral program, in exchange for service in nursing education when the recipients earn their degrees. Recipients would be State residents who demonstrate academic merit, have previous nursing experience, and meet admission criteria.
The Regents urge all institutions of higher education to focus on faculty development to improve the teaching practices of faculty and, therefore, enhance student learning.
- At the State level, the Department will seek increased
funding for graduate fellowships to accomplish the following:
- Establish the New York State Doctoral Fellowship Program: fellowships to be awarded annually, distributed competitively among New York colleges and universities and matched by college and university awards of tuition scholarships.
- Establish the International Exchange Post-doctoral Fellowship Program to develop closer links between the higher education system in New York and the global scholarly community: ten four-year fellowships awarded annually and distributed competitively among New York colleges and universities.
- At the federal level, the Department will advocate for increased support
for graduate fellowships in the Higher Education Act.
Admission to Graduate Study
During the period of this Plan, the Department will engage institutions offering graduate programs in discussions of admission requirements, given the standards in §52.2(d) of the Commissioner's Regulations:
- The admission of students shall be determined through an orderly process using published criteria which shall be uniformly applied. Among other considerations, the admissions process shall encourage the increased participation in collegiate programs at all levels of persons from groups historically underrepresented in such programs.
- Admissions shall take into account the capacity of the student to undertake
a course of study and the capacity of the institution to provide the
instructional and other support the student needs to complete the program.
Indicators of Progress: Strong Graduate Programs to Meet the State's Needs
- Change over time in the number of full-time and part-time faculty, statewide.
- Final reports of Regents accreditation and Department site visits.
- Labor market trends and institutional projections of needs for new faculty.
- Projections of faculty shortages by discipline.
- Change over time in faculty distribution by gender and racial/ethnic characteristics, statewide.
- Change over time in the number of master's and doctoral degrees conferred, by level, discipline, gender, and ethnicity.
- Change over time in aggregate financial support for graduate and first-professional-degree students, statewide.
- Change over time in the relationship of education to employment and
The Regents encourage institutional initiatives, consistent with their educational missions, and ask institutions to describe in their master plans their research priorities and their recommendations to New York State relating to the discovery and dissemination of new knowledge, including knowledge to inform and support the development of policies to help meet the State's economic and social needs.
New York's higher education system continues to need high research capabilities across a full range of disciplines. Knowledge continues to grow exponentially. New York's higher education institutions compete with the rest of the world for the necessary resources to support research initiatives. In 2001-02, they spent more than $2.7 billion on research, according to the National Science Foundation, of which more than 63 percent was funded by the federal government, about 16 percent by the institutions themselves, about five percent by industry, and about 15 percent by the State and all other sources. The total expenditure on research placed New York's colleges and universities second in the nation, after California's institutions (See Table 5).
Table 5 Research and Development Expenditures at Doctorate-Granting Institutions, Selected States, 2002*
California doctorate-granting universities spend almost twice as much as New York does on R & D
*All sources (federal, State and local governments, industry, institutional funds and other sources). Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, fiscal year 2002
The top three federal sources of research support that year were, in order:
- Department of Health and Human Services
- National Science Foundation
- Department of Defense
Together, they provided almost 91 percent of all federal research funding at New York colleges and universities.
Collaboration by institutions and individual researchers with businesses and other organizations and with the professions and the people they serve through research is an important element of a highly effective higher education system. In fiscal 2002, according to the Association of University Technology Managers, Columbia University led all institutions of higher education in the nation in revenues earned from commercialization of faculty inventions. New York University was third in the nation (after the University of California system).
In the last decade, technology has changed how the world conducts business. The economic health of New York, the nation, and the world depends on creating new knowledge to help meet present and future needs and pressing and emerging challenges. Research at colleges and universities in such areas as health care, technology, and energy sources will contribute significantly to this end. In February 2003, Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Technology Review identified ten emerging technologies as among those likely to be highly influential in the near future:
- nano solar cells
- grid computing
- nanoimprint lithography
- injectable tissue engineering
- quantum cryptography
- software assurance
- molecular imaging
- wireless sensor networks
Research is cumulative and requires access to scholarly communication regarding research conducted by others in the same or similar fields. According to NYSHEI, New York has fallen behind other states in access to such information. Today, while New York still ranks first among states in subscriptions to print journals, New York ranks 20th in libraries offering electronic indexes and reference tools and 35th in offering electronic journals and full-text content.Informing and supporting the development of policies to help meet the State's economic and social needs.
Collaboration with government and community organizations to identify pressing and emerging needs of society is also one of the elements of a highly effective higher education system. New York State needs research in a broad range of disciplines across the humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences to help inform the development and support of policies to meet the State's economic and social needs. At the time this Plan is written, the Regents believe that there is a continuing need for research to inform policies that address concerns that New York's urban areas face.
The Department will convene meetings of producers, consumers, and funders of research to identify these research needs and to publicize the results. For example, New York State Museum scientists conduct basic and applied research in the earth sciences, biology, and human history. They advance their disciplines through publications and presentations at professional conferences and often work with colleagues in higher education. The Museum sponsors a Natural History Conference every two years, drawing scientists from universities across the U.S. and Canada.
Another element of a highly effective higher education system is that every institution avidly pursues knowledge relating to its mission and shares that knowledge with others. Every institution is encouraged to consider the role research plays in its mission. Those that focus on technical or professional fields may engage faculty and students in applied research. Many baccalaureate institutions include undergraduate research projects in their programs of study. In the natural sciences, evidence indicates that such opportunities can improve retention of students who otherwise shift to other disciplines.
The following describes planning elements that the four sectors, the Board of Regents and the Department will undertake to support the priority of Creation of New Knowledge through Research.
Sector Initiatives in Response to Priority for Creation of New Knowledge through Research
The City University of New York.
- Continue the mission to enhance research activity and the
research character of the entire University:
- foster an environment conducive to research by sustaining and enhancing campus based research facilities and opportunities;
- plan for a new Advanced Science Research Center to provide facilities at which faculty from all CUNY campuses may conduct advanced research; and
- continue the interdisciplinary research on urban environment.
- Provide greater institutional support for post-doctoral research students.
- Move toward full tuition remission for doctoral students to enhance CUNY's
competitiveness in attracting research oriented students.
- Expand academic research areas that contribute to economic development.
Economic development interests are most directly served by attention to applied
research which in itself is based on the results of basic research. Academic
institutions traditionally provide assistance in solving problems as well
as in developing new knowledge. It is important that CUNY continue to develop
- Further develop Flagship initiatives in structural biology and photonics
(expanding into biophotonics and nanoscience). The CUNY Center for Advanced
Technology (CAT) in Photonics Applications works collaboratively with industry
(in particular with New York State businesses), universities, other CATs,
and other institutions to advance its scientific and economic development
goals. Through such collaborative efforts, the CAT, together with its CUNY
partner, the Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, will increase
opportunities for federal and private research dollars that further extend
the research capabilities and services offered to New York State companies.
- Develop and expand the role of Postdoctoral Fellows performing research
at the University. These scholars are essential to the productivity of the
scientific enterprise; as their numbers continue to increase at CUNY, their
academic presence will be integrated into the research mission.
Independent Colleges and Universities.
- The independent sector will continue to sustain excellence
in cutting edge research programs important to the State
of New York and the nation.
- Each year, independent colleges and universities attract
over $1 billion in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding,
and rank among the top 100 in NIH funding nationally.
- The independent sector also will continue to expand substantially
the intensity and scope of research programs. Much of an
enhanced research effort could be funded from federal and
corporate contracts and grants. Equally valuable to New York's
research enterprise are private gifts and grants. While federal
grants are targeted for specific purposes, private gifts
provide the means to finance additional creative and innovative
endeavors. Independent institutions are pursuing these sources
- The independent sector will continue to support research
that can use undergraduates as research assistants and co-investigators
as part of the undergraduate learning experience.
- The independent sector will continue to share information
through journals, conferences, and the Internet.
- A theme underlying the independent sector's master plan
is the value that postdoctoral scholars and fellows pursuing
research add to the vigor of the academic experience. Not
only do these individuals add to the general academic milieu,
attracting talented undergraduates; they are important partners
in developing research programs on campus.
- The independent sector will continue to use faculty expertise
and introduce academic programs to target New York's greatest
needs, thereby promoting program quality and institutional
effectiveness to assist in the establishment, development,
and growth of New York firms, including small businesses.
- The independent sector also will continue to develop technological
advancement and technology transfer to the marketplace that
support New York's industries' ability to compete in a global
economy and to focus research on areas that capitalize on
current strengths that are essential for success in that
- Although no institution professes to have a research component,
several rely on external industry professionals to help them
to keep current on advances in their fields affecting the
curricula of supplying the new people whose collegiate training
is state of the art. One institution offering only post-baccalaureate
management programs requires all students to conduct applied
research in areas they are likely to encounter in the workplace.
Most institutions regularly canvass employers to determine
what course revisions or new courses may be needed to meet
workplace needs and what skills are most lacking in the business
State University of New York
- Promoting research is vital to enhancing SUNY's academic
quality and stature, and in increasing the University's contribution
to the economic health of New York State and beyond. SUNY's
success in attracting millions of dollars of research support
in areas important to New York's future is made possible
by the research and discoveries of its outstanding faculty.
- Mission Review's first cycle set a system-wide goal to
reach $1 billion in externally sponsored research activity
per year. Mission Review II will articulate a new goal, consistent
with campus missions and aggregate plans, to increase research
and other sponsored activity beyond the $1 billion mark.
To ensure campus success in reaching research goals, SUNY
will continue to provide support for research.
- Academic programs are being launched or strengthened in
conjunction with the research activity at the Centers of
Excellence in bioinformatics at SUNY Buffalo, nanotechnology
at Albany, and wireless communications at Stony Brook. Together
with SUNY's Centers of Excellence, incubator programs such
as the Center for Environmental Science and Technology Management
(CESTM) at the University at Albany and the Long Island High
Technology Incubator (LIHTI) at Stony Brook will continue
to serve as catalysts in attracting businesses and generating
new research and scientific breakthroughs, providing important
educational resources for training scientists, engineers
and researchers in diverse areas such as atmospheric chemistry,
nanoelectronics, wireless communication, and artificial intelligence.
Regents Initiatives in Response to Priority for Creation of New Knowledge through Research
- Support the development of policies to help meet the State's
economic and social needs. Support the development of policies
to help meet the State's economic and social needs. During
the period of this Plan, the Department will help convene
meetings of producers, consumers, and funders of research
in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences
to identify research in disciplines to help inform the development
and support of policies to meet the State's economic and
social needs, and to publicize the results. Initially, there
is a need for continuing research to help inform policies
that address conditions facing the State's urban areas.
- Undergraduates and Research. The Regents encourage baccalaureate
institutions to consider ways to provide opportunities for
undergraduates to participate in research and similar scholarly
endeavors, where appropriate.
Indicators of Progress: Creation of New Knowledge through Research
- Comparison of research expenditures at New York doctoral
degree institutions with those in key other states and their
change over time.
- Increases in aggregate and per capita college and university
research and development expenditures in New York compared
to competing states, as reported by the National Science
- Increases in university-related licensing income, licenses generating income, U.S. patents issued, U.S. patent applications filed, and start-up companies formed in New York compared to competing states, or comparable indicators from surveys published by the Association of University Technology Managers.